Tire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the swimming device, see swim ring. For the silent film, see Rubber Tires. The tire standing facing the camera does not contain the metal wheel, onto which the tire is put so that it can be mounted on a car. Most tires, such as those for automobiles and bicycles, provide traction between the vehicle and the road while providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock. The materials of modern pneumatic tires are synthetic rubber, natural rubber, fabric and wire, along with carbon black and other chemical compounds.
They consist of a tread and a body. The tread provides traction while the body provides containment for a quantity of compressed air. Before rubber was developed, the first versions of tires were simply bands of metal fitted around wooden wheels to prevent wear and tear. Early rubber tires were solid (not pneumatic). Today, the majority of tires are pneumatic inflatable structures, comprising a doughnut- shaped body of cords and wires encased in rubber and generally filled with compressed air to form an inflatable cushion. Pneumatic tires are used on many types of vehicles, including cars, bicycles, motorcycles, buses, trucks, heavy equipment, and aircraft.
A torn mountain bike tire casing or sidewall on the trail can spell disaster for the rest of your ride. When you tear your mountain bike tire casing on a. That's why I used a piece of sidewall casing I cut from an old tire. Remove the Bike Wheel. It's much easier to fix a flat if you first remove the wheel from your bike. Removing the wheel is a 2-step process: First, Release Your Brakes. The reason for the front tire change from the D407F pattern to the reversed tread design of the D408F pattern is to help address irregular wear and the associated.
Metal tires are still used on locomotives and railcars, and solid rubber (or other polymer) tires are still used in various non- automotive applications, such as some casters, carts, lawnmowers, and wheelbarrows. Etymology and spelling. The reason for this naming is that originally tire referred to iron hoops or thick wires bound to carriage wheels. In French, blacksmithing the word for a drawn iron rod is a tirer, or .
In an article in the London Magazine/Intelligencer of 1. Another early mention of a tire in English is in The Scots Magazine, Volume 1. By James Boswell (1. Another etymology of . Nevertheless, traditional publishers continued using tire. The Times newspaper in Britain was still using tire as late as 1. The 1. 91. 1 edition of the Encyclop.
Description: The Tomac Nevegal features a tread pattern that was voted #1 tread pattern 2 years in a row by Mountain Bike Action Magazine. There's a question for mountain bike tyres but I can't seem to find anything on here for road bikes. At the moment I'm running at around 90psi.
The tire would be heated in a forge fire, placed over the wheel and quenched, causing the metal to contract and fit tightly on the wheel. A skilled worker, known as a wheelwright, carried out this work. The outer ring served to . However, this never went into production.
The first practical pneumatic tire was made in 1. It was an effort to prevent the headaches of his 1. Johnnie, while riding his tricycle on rough pavements. His doctor, John, later Sir John Fagan, had prescribed cycling as an exercise for the boy, and was a regular visitor.
Fagan participated in designing the first pneumatic tires. In Dunlop's tire patent specification dated 3. October 1. 88. 8, his interest is only in its use in cycles and light vehicles. In September 1. 89. They employed inventor Charles Kingston Welch and also acquired other rights and patents which allowed them some limited protection of their Pneumatic Tyre business's position.
Pneumatic Tyre would become Dunlop Rubber and Dunlop Tyres. The development of this technology hinged on myriad engineering advances, including the vulcanization of natural rubber by Charles Goodyear in the United States and independently by Thomas Hancock in Britain, and patented by each separately in 1. Synthetic rubbers were invented in the laboratories of Bayer in the 1.
Michelin had bought the bankrupt Citro. Because of its superiority in handling and fuel economy. Thus the bead must have high tensile strength. With no force applied to the outer tread, the bead is pulled equally in all directions, thus no additional net force is applied to the tire bead and wheel rim.
However, when the tread is pushed inward on one side, this releases some pressure on the corresponding sidewall ply pulling on the bead. Yet the sidewall ply on the other side continues to pull the bead in the opposite direction. Thus the still fully tensioned sidewall ply pulls the tire bead and wheel rim in the direction opposite to the tread displacement and matching the total force applied to push the tread inward.
The cross- ply cord arrangement orients the cords to more directly support the bead & wheel rim (like a sling: bead to cord and around below the tread back to the opposite bead, both ways, thus crossing plies of cords). However, with improved combinations of cord, bead, rim materials and manufacturing techniques, combined with ongoing focus and research on tire efficiency and durability, it became both feasible and desirable to manufacture radial- ply cord tires, which, for many applications (despite higher costs), outperform and more than outlast (reliable- usual- service- life/cost ratio) similar cross- ply cord tire designs by (a) facilitating a flatter contact pattern with more evenly distributed pressure on the momentarily stationary area of contact between tread & ground and (b) lower operating costs over time: due to reduced tire temperature, decreased rolling resistance, lower puncture rates, greater longevity, etc.
Over one billion tires are manufactured annually, making the tire industry a major consumer of natural rubber. It is estimated that by 2. Many kinds of rubber are used, the most common being styrene- butadienecopolymer. The article Tire manufacturing describes the components assembled to make a tire, the various materials used, the manufacturing processes and machinery, and the overall business model. Styrene- butadiene copolymer (chemical structure pictured) is the most popular material used in the production of rubber tires. It can be composed of various composites of rubber material . It is estimated that passenger vehicles consume approximately 5~1.
It combines butadiene, which is a highly rubbery polymer (Tg = - 1. Therefore, the ratio the two polymers in the styrene- butadiene copolymer is considered key in determining the glass transition temperature of the material, which is correlated to its grip and resistance properties.
For instance, this involves modifying the microstructure of the copolymer (for instance, using solution styrene butadiene rubber (S- SBR) to control the addition of vinyl butadiene units). The portion that is in contact with the road at a given instant in time is the contact patch. The tread is a thick rubber, or rubber/composite compound formulated to provide an appropriate level of traction that does not wear away too quickly. The tread pattern is characterized by the geometrical shape of the grooves, lugs, voids and sipes. Grooves run circumferentially around the tire, and are needed to channel away water. Lugs are that portion of the tread design that contacts the road surface.
Voids are spaces between lugs that allow the lugs to flex and evacuate water. Tread patterns feature non- symmetrical (or non- uniform) lug sizes circumferentially to minimize noise levels at discrete frequencies. Sipes are valleys cut across the tire, usually perpendicular to the grooves, which allow the water from the grooves to escape to the sides in an effort to prevent hydroplaning. Treads are often designed to meet specific product marketing positions.
High performance tires have small void ratios to provide more rubber in contact with the road for higher traction, but may be compounded with softer rubber that provides better traction, but wears quickly. Mud and snow (M& S) tires are designed with higher void ratios to channel away rain and mud, while providing better gripping performance. Tread lug. As the tread lug enters the road contact area, or footprint, it is compressed. As it rotates through the footprint it is deformed circumferentially. As it exits the footprint, it recovers to its original shape.
During the deformation and recovery cycle the tire exerts variable forces into the vehicle. Voids also provide channels for rainwater, mud, and snow to be channeled away from the footprint. The void ratio is the void area of the tire divided by the entire tread area. Low void areas have high contact area and therefore higher traction on clean, dry pavement. Rain groove. Rain grooves are circumferential in most truck tires. Many high performance passenger tires feature rain grooves that are angled from the center toward the sides of the tire. This reduces shear stress in the lug and reduces heat build up.
Testing of identical siped and unsiped tires showed measurable improvements in snow traction and ice braking performance, however diminishing and extending braking distances on wet and dry pavement by a few feet on siped tires. Off- road tire enthusiasts have been siping tires for years for greater traction, as many manufacturers now offer already siped off- road- tires. Wear bar. When the tread lugs are worn to the point that the wear bars connect across the lugs, the tires are fully worn and should be taken out of service.
Most wear bars indicate a remaining tread depth of 1. The bead is typically reinforced with steel wire and compounded of high strength, low flexibility rubber. The bead seats tightly against the two rims on the wheel to ensure that a tubeless tire holds air without leakage. The bead fit is tight to ensure the tire does not shift circumferentially as the wheel rotates.
The width of the rim in relationship to the tire is a factor in the handling characteristics of an automobile, because the rim supports the tire's profile. The sidewall is largely rubber but reinforced with fabric or steel cords that provide for tensile strength and flexibility. The sidewall contains air pressure and transmits the torque applied by the drive axle to the tread to create traction but supports little of the weight of the vehicle, as is clear from the total collapse of the tire when punctured. Sidewalls are molded with manufacturer- specific detail, government mandated warning labels, and other consumer information, and sometimes decorative ornamentation, like whitewalls. Shoulder. The orientations of the plies play a large role in the performance of the tire and is one of the main ways that tires are categorized. Associated components.